Many meters have pulse outputs, examples include single part and 3 part power meters, Gas meters, Water meters. The pulse output is also a flashing light-emitting diode or a shift relay (usually solid-state) or each. Pulse Power plans should give you an idea of how energy can be monitored with the use of pulse output.
In the case of AN electricity meter, a pulse output corresponds to an outlined quantity of energy passing through the meter (kWh/Wh). For single-phase, domestic electricity meters (e.g. the Elster A100c) every pulse sometimes equals one Wh (1000 pulses per kWh).
Calculating Energy For the A100c meter, every pulse represents 1/1000th of a kWh, i.e. 1 Wh, of energy passing through the meter.
Calculating Power 3600 seconds per hour = 3600J per pulse i.e. one Wh = 3600J thus, instant power P = 3600 / T wherever T is that the time between the falling fringe of every pulse.
Optical pulse counting: Flashing LEDs
Many electricity meters don’t have pulse output connections or the connections aren’t accessible thanks to restrictions obligatory by the utility company. All trendy meters have AN optical pulse output light-emitting diode. In such cases, an optical sensing element may be accustomed to interface with the meter.
The red pulse-output light-emitting diode may be seen within the A100c image on top of. To find the pulses from the light-emitting diode, you wish a light-weight sensing element. there’s a wealth of documentation on the web on victimization AN Arduino to find periodical light-emitting diode output.
An article by AirSensor: Arduino Electricity Datalogger that uses the TSL261 or TSL257 lightweight to the Voltage sensing element, Glyn has found the TSL257 lightweight to Voltage sensing element to be best for detection light-emitting diode pulses from a communicator 5193B meter (see notes on optical sensors below).
An article by Eric Sandeen Energy Monitor Proof of conception victimization AN Axman photoreceiver
An article by Ken Boak: victimization AN Arduino to live gas consumption
Notes on optical sensors (results of initial tests)
A TLS257 light-to-voltage device connected on to AN Arduino digital input with a 10K pull-down electrical device was able to find a light-weight pulse from communicator 5193B meter. TLS257 detects lightweight within the visible vary. extremely tormented by close lightweight. have to be compelled to smart close lightweight shielding around sensing element. sensing element has the advantage of an in-built op-amp to make sure smart voltage swing and permit direct Arduino affiliation. The low price of £1.31 (22/10/10).
The TLS261 image diode was conjointly tested. Since this sensing element is IR it’s not affected the maximum amount by close lightweight. Was able to find pulses from a bright light-emitting diode, however not from the communicator 5193B meter.
Wired / Switched output pulse detection
Many meters even have wired/switched pulse outputs. several have affiliation diagrams kind of like this one that comes with the A100c. the 2 smaller holes ar the heartbeat output connections. I even have side Vin and Vout labels to form it a touch clearer. Vin is provided by AN external power offer. Vout is that the meter output created by toggling an indoor solid-state relay (like a switch between Vin and Vout)